So what is sugar and where does it come from? That’s a good place to begin, I think. The answer is that — at least classically — sugar is the distilled, evaporated and crystallized juice of sugarcane, a giant grass that’s native to India. There it’s thought sugarcane was cultivated starting in about 3,000 B.C..
Humans didn’t make thing we now know as “sugar” there at that time. Rather they chewed the stalks and (maybe) extracted the juice. It wasn’t until about 600 A.D. that peoples in the Indus Valley hit on the process of crystallization. They’d pulp the cane, press it to extract the maximum amount of juice, then clarify the juice by adding lime, egg white or animal blood and boiling it (this would cause a scum to rise to the top that could be skimmed off). At that point the cane juice would be boiled down to evaporate the water, then laid out in shallow pans to crystallize. The result was a slurry of crystals and a dark amber syrup: molasses.
It was a good method, yet one that was refined further as sugar and sugarcane plants were traded to the Chinese in the East and the Arabs in the West. The Abbasid Caliphate (which owned all of the Middle East, North Africa and Spain starting in about 850 A.D.) liked crystal sugar so much that they spread sugarcane and sugar making techniques all through their empire.
In the early Middle Ages they hit on a technique whereby they’d pour the crystallized sugar mixture into a tall clay cone that had a small hole at the bottom through which the molasses would escape. After a few days they’d add a plug of wet clay on the top (the wide end) that would slowly release its moisture over a period of about a week. This moisture would descend through the mass, essentially “washing” the sugar of some of the last of its molasses. The result was a light brown, conical “loaf” of sugar that looks extremely suspicious when propped up on end.
These sugar loaves remained the standard for sugar for about the next six hundred years. Indeed every “sugarloaf” mountain you come across here in the States (or indeed any other place) was named for this tall, pointed shape. How did one break up a mass of sugar of this size? Easy, with a pair of sugar “nips”…that metal device pictured at the bottom there. How else do you think?