French Flour

My ambition with these international flour sections is to offer something different from the usual table-type “world flour” charts. While those things do make a certain rough sense, they can mislead as much as they can inform. For the fact is there are very few true equivalents when it comes to international flours. Though flour looks uniform to the eye, it’s actually a highly complex system packed full of variables. I’m hoping to convey a sense for those variables in these sections, show why “equivalents” — especially American equivalents — are almost always going to be an imperfect match, but also perhaps open the door to some creative problem solving.

So, French flour. Why is it so different from American flour? Well firstly and most obviously, because French flour is made from different strains of wheat. That may not sound very important, but subtlety counts for a lot in baking, and it’s surprising the effect that a small difference in the character of, say, wheat protein (gluten) can have.

Second, French flour is milled according to different standards. Many French bread flours are what we call “straight” flours. A straight flour is what you get when you grind a wheat berry, remove most of the bran and germ, but then don’t sift the grindings into various “streams” which you then mix and match in varying proportions, (as most American millers do). This makes a difference, especially as you get into higher extraction flours which contain more of the outer endosperm. That region of the wheat berry has bits of bran in it, not to mention trace minerals and other nutrients that help yeasts to grow and digest starch. And all those things have an effect on the way a dough ferments.

So: very different stuff. The good news is that these days a lot of French flour can be bought online. Helping you determine which type you need is the part of the intention of this post.

Setting out here, an important thing to know is that French flours, like many other European flours, are not labeled by their intended use as flours are in the States (i.e. all-purpose flour, bread flour, pastry flour) but are ranked according to their so-called “ash content”. At first glance the ash content system seems mysterious, even impenetrable, but as I’ve written previously, the ash content system isn’t a difficult to figure out. French flour types are labeled things like “T45” which means that this particular flour type has an ash content of 0.45%, or thereabouts.

So let’s get into some of these, shall we? Thanks very much to readers Alan and Cynthia for their very helpful contributions. I invite others to add to — or correct — what is here. Reliable, under-the-hood information on flour is always hard to come by. Milling is a secretive trade. Any additional pieces are welcome, and will be useful to others as this post evolves.

Type 45

Type 45 is a very fine, very white, soft flour that American bakers think of as “pastry flour”, and it is. It’s great for tart crusts, short breads and sponge cakes. Like American pastry flour it’s very starchy and low protein, taken as it is from the very center of the wheat berry. For this reason — because that weird Euro gluten is less of a factor — it performs quite like American pastry flour. Which is not to say it’s an exact match, just close enough for joconde, as it were.

Interestingly, in French homes, T45 is more commonly used as a sauce thickener because of its baby powder-fine grind (as I’ve written before, homemade pastry is something of an oddity in France). Occasionally you’ll see Type 45 pop up in French bread recipes, usually for things like brioche or croissants where, in combination with the slightly hardier T55, it delivers a very light crumb.

Type 55

Speaking of which, there’s T55. This is the type that most readers ask me about, because you see it listed quite a bit in baguette recipes. A useful way to think about T55 is as a sort of French “all-purpose”. Just as with American AP, it’s a pantry staple in most homes, used for everything from pancake batter to coatings for pan-fried meats and fish. It has that same medium protein and medium grind.

Which is not to say it resembles American AP in everything. As the protein level rises, the functional differences between French flour and American flour become more apparent, especially in breads. Here the firmer, more moldable gluten helps loaves stand taller in the proofing and baking steps. And that’s a big advantage when it comes to volume. It’s not surprising then that T55 is the go-to flour for baguettes. However it’s also a standard for laminated dough. Having done a lot of laminating in my time, I can tell you that an extensible (not elastic) gluten makes rolling croissant and puff pastry dough a whole lot easier. American bread flour works very well for laminated dough also, I should note. It just takes a little more work.

Type 65

With T65 we’re into serious bread territory. This is a white flour that employs the maximum amount of hard outer endosperm without getting into the very outermost, bran-containing endosperm layers. So it’s the beefiest of the French flours from a structure- and volume-creating standpoint.

You could make the case that T65 is the most alien of the French flours from a performance perspective. Because Continental gluten behaves so differently compared to American gluten, and because there is so much of that gluten present in T65, it’s the hardest flour to find a true “equivalent” for. I’ve seen this flour in use, and have been awed by the way it can create even a large bread loaf that seems to defy gravity.

That said there are some senses in which French bakeries use T65 like American bakeries use American high-gluten flour: as a mix-in flour to beef up lighter doughs (you sometimes see a proportion of T65 in baguette formulas) as well as to give strength, and hence volume, to doughs that have a high proportion of whole wheat flour in them.

Type 80

From this point forward in our climb up the ash content ladder, bran comes into the picture in increasing quantities. Case-in-point French Type 80 flour, which is a bit of an odd duck as far as American bakers are concerned. T80 has a very high extraction rate, incorporating a few of the wheat berry’s outer bran-containing layers. This is what accounts for its every-so-subtle beige tinge. So it’s a very “hard” flour.

But “hardness”, it’s important to note, doesn’t always translate to rising ability. Because when you start swapping out endosperm for bran, the overall protein content of the flour is going to start to go down, as is the case with T80. So while the ash content number would imply an even higher gluten content and even stronger rise than T65, the reality is actually the opposite. You have less gluten, and even more than that you have gluten-undermining bran in the mix. Thus the performance of T80 is going to be more along the lines of T55.

I confess I know little about how T80 is used, though I can speculate it’s a lot like some of the so-called “white whole wheat” flours that have hit the American market over last decade or so. It’s probably great for making country-style loaves, being higher in flavor and nutritional value, and delivering more texture.

Type 110

“Light whole wheat” is probably the best way to describe T110. With a good amount of bran and even a little germ in it, it’s the kind of flour that reader Alan (an anglophone who lives in France) likes for whole wheat sandwich bread because it delivers lots of whole wheat feel, but not so much bran and germ that a dough made with it doesn’t rise well. This flour, like most high extraction flours, is often blended with other, lighter flours to make breads of various kinds. That’s not to say that it can’t be used on its own to make a wheat bread loaf, it will just need a boost from some vital wheat gluten.

Reader Alan reports that he can swap T110 directly for American light whole wheat flour, which isn’t surprising since just as with T45 pastry flour, gluten really isn’t a focus here. This flour is more about the flavor and the texture.

Type 150

T150 is a full-on whole wheat flour, with all the high fiber (bran), germ and nutrients you’d expect in an American whole wheat. And while I haven’t ever worked with it, my guess is that it performs, for all its under-the-hood technical differences, more or less identically to American whole wheat. Which is to say that while it’s going to be packed with nutty flavors and aromas, it’s not going to deliver a particularly voluminous loaf of bread unless a.) it’s cut with a lighter flour in the mix, or b.) it’s spiked with some vital wheat gluten.

So that’s what I know. Readers who have something to add here: go for it.

29 thoughts on “French Flour”

  1. Hi Rachael!

    Thanks for the question. The French have trouble with flapjacks, muffins and cookies for the same reason we have problems with their crusty breads: the base components are just too different. Lack of stretchy gluten is the issue, and there’s not a lot the can be done about that. They can try using bread flour, that will probably help. Otherwise you can try sending them a bottle of vital wheat gluten from a health food store. A little of that in the mix might fix the problem.

    That’s my best suggestion! Cheers,

    – Joe

  2. Hey Phylli!

    Most national brand flours are hard northern wheat. Just avoid the White Lily or small local labels in your locale and you’ll be fine. King Arthur makes a lot of great flours, most of them from harder wheats. They’re available all over now, I believe.

    – Joe

  3. Hi Angela!

    All our food crops are evolving constantly. Which is to say seed producers are always crossing strains that have better resistance to this or that. It’s the only way we can avoid the pests, blights and rusts that would otherwise obliterate our food crops. Now if you’re asking specifically about GMO wheat, I can tell you that it’s not approved for sale in Europe, America or anywhere else as far as I’m aware. The main difference between European wheat and American wheat are the strains. Some just grow better there, some grow better here. That’s about all I got, Angela! Thanks for the comment!

    – Joe

    1. Hey Sue!

      I would say that T80 is the closest. Like clear flour it’s got a lot of that very hard outer endosperm in it, plus some bran. But where French T80 contains some of the softer inner endosperm, clear flour has none of it. It consists of only the biggest, hardest outer endosperm pieces which, along with the bran and shorts, don’t fall through (in other words “clear”) the sieves after the wheat berry is broken. That’s why you usually only see it in rye breads or very rustic country loaves. My sense is that T80 will give you more rise than a clear flour will, but in general they will perform similarly.

      Thanks for the question!


  4. This is a great reference to keep going back to, thank you. There are so many flours available now (and such an enormous price range) that it becomes very confusing. I’m often hesitant to buy “unknown” flours if I’m unsure how to use them. Although I recently did just that. Not European flour, but I recently bought high-gluten flour, corn meal, and all-purpose flour from a mill in Kentucky. (Weisenberger) A friend had recommended it to me. Haven’t used any of it yet as I’m waiting to use up my already-opened stuff. It is also becoming more and more common at greenmarkets around here to see flour sold from local mills. I’m hesitant to buy them. Sorry to stray a bit, these are not European flours. But I’m pleased to learn more about “other” types of flours.

    1. I know that place! They’re only about an hour from here. Yet I’ve never been there. Why not??

      But yes, the more you know about flour and things like extraction rates, the better you’ll do when it comes to bread, especially. I’ve learned a lot just writing these posts!

      Great to hear from you as always, Chana!

      – Joe

  5. Thank you! As you so often do, you’ve transformed my knowledge on how and why flour behaves as it does.

    On that vein, Stella Parks at Serious Eats came up with an impressively creative 100% whole wheat bread recipe. She finds an alternative to spiking the dough with extra gluten: an autolyse and a food processor. It’s quite tasty, and makes me wonder how much a food processor can compensate for all that extra bran hurting the rising power of whole wheat products.

    1. Thanks to you, Ella! It is my great pleasure. And I shall check out that recipe!



  6. Thanks! You solved a couple of mysteries for me over the course of these posts. One is ash content — you mentioned Europeans talking about it, but I checked the labels on my French flours and couldn’t find it anywhere (and for better or for worse my only friends who bake here are other American and Canadian expats). I always had the vague impression that the type numbers referred to the fineness of grind, but voilà — there’s my ash content! Though I guess there is actually a connection between the two.

    The other is the difference in elasticity of doughs made from American and European flours. Pretty much the only doughs I ever made before I moved to Europe were pizza doughs, and I was always frustrated by how I would stretch them out to the perfect size and they would spring back on me. Later, when I got my pizza doughs to behave, I chalked it up to experience. It might actually have been the switch to European flours after I moved (though I’d like to believe experience helped too). And the little baking I’ve done in the US since then has never gone as planned, which I blamed on unfamiliar kitchens and whatnot. Again, it may have been the flour.

    I think I might also have a clue as to why my baguettes turned out so poorly when I made them for my family in the US one Christmas, but I still have to give that one some thought.

    You’re probably leading up to this eventually — I guess it’s kind of the point of the entire series of posts — but for me the big question is, if I’m used to European flours and have to bake with American flours (or vice-versa), what adjustments should I make?

      1. Hey again Alan!

        Your thoughtful notes led me in directions I probably would not have gone on my own. I greatly appreciate the assist!

        Many thanks!


    1. Hey Alan!

      Glad these are a help to you. I’m learning a lot myself as I take a deep dive into these subjects. As far as adjustments, that’s a tough one. I’ve always thought gluten behavior is the main difference between American and Continental flour, and while I’ve come to see there are many more incongruities between them than I thought, I think gluten is still the chief problem here. So I wonder…

      It’s well known in the cereal industry that there’s a lot of European wheat gluten on the market. Could swapping European vital wheat gluten for the American stuff help with this problem? It’s an interesting idea. Where you’d really need it is with T55 and especially T65. But then you wouldn’t want to overload them with gluten either. Could you start with a T45 and just add European vital wheat gluten to arrive at a plausible T55? Maybe spike T55 to get to T65? Or maybe gluten-spiked T80 is the answer. It would take some experimentation, but it seems that, at least in theory, it could work.

      Or maybe that’s just crazy talk!

      Cheers and thanks for the help!


  7. I’m so happy to see Joe back!! This site has been open in my browser during the quarantine cause I like reading the good stuff. Only today I see new posts from you. I am a slacker.

    I’ve known this site years back and this is my go-to if I need an education about anything in the baking world.

    1. Jewel!

      I remember you! Nice to be in touch again after several years. I hope you’re well and baking!



  8. I’m not sure where I heard this, but I remember reading once that T80 flour can be substituted by mixing 80% whole wheat flour with 20% bread flour (for example, 80g-20g).

    1. Hey Vincent! That’s interesting, though I’d think it would be the reverse, 80% bread flour with 20% whole wheat. T80 is pretty white, with just a hint of a brand tinge.

      Anyway, that’s my best guess!


      – Joe

  9. Good morning,
    My readings tell me that T45 is a high protein content flour in France! About 13-14%. Lowest the T value, higher the protein content. Do you agree?:-)

    1. Hello Reuland! I don’t think that’s true as a rule. However there are certainly some higher protein T45 flours out there, just like there are some higher protein all-purpose flour here in the States. So it’s difficult to say, absolutely, that a T45 is low protein. So I agree in part!



  10. I’m from the UK and have made fruit cake from the same recipe successfully for many years using “self raising” flour. I now live in France where the flours are very different. I use “gateau” flour which is described as number T45, to be used for cakes, and fine puff pastry.

    Unfortunately, my fruit cakes in France are not successful. They crumble when sliced and are quite doughy. This is very disappointing. What do you suggest?
    Joyeux Noël, Bev

    1. Hey Bev!

      That’s not an easy question. My first instinct would be to move up to bread flour in hopes that more gluten would solve the problem. That said, there are other ways to introduce structure. You may want to consider simply adding more egg, which should also help to hold everything together. Let me know how it goes, please!

      Best of luck,


  11. Hello Joe,

    Thank you for this very interesting article. I’m from Australia and buy imported French flour to bake with.
    Can you tell me which of the French flours has the lowest Gluten Content? I always thought it was T55 ,but from your article it seems maybe it’s T45?
    I’d be glad of your help.

    1. Hello Amanda!

      The easiest answer is that yes, you’ll find the least amount in gluten in the lowest extraction flour. Which is T45. That said, not all wheat is equal in terms of gluten. Some strains (harder cold climate wheats) will have more gluten in them than others (softer, warmer climate wheats). Which means that in certain cases you could find a soft wheat T55 that actually has less gluten in it than a hard wheat T45. To be truly definitive, you’d really have to get under the hood of the individual products. But as a rule I’d say that if you truly do want low gluten, T45 is your best bet.

      Sorry for the slightly confusing answer, but I hope it helped!


      – Joe

  12. Hi Joe,
    I am a recent graduate of baking school and would really like to purchase French flours for baking here in the states. Is there a website that you can recommend?
    Thanks & Happy baking,

    1. Hey Linda!

      Depending on what you want to do, I would probably suggest forging a relationship with a restaurant or bakery in your vicinity so you can place an order through Sysco. They can get you pretty much anything.

      Short of that, there may be a Bakemark distribution center in your area, and I know they let individuals set up accounts (I have one here in Louisville). I’m not sure if they carry French flours, but I expect they do these days. The next step would be to ask at a good restaurant supply store. You never know what they may have. A local one I know buys European flour from time to time.

      I’d do online sources last, since they’re going to be the most expensive. I think I was forced to buy some Italian 00 via Amazon a couple of years ago. I think I paid a dollar a pound for it (highway robbery by wholesale food standards), but it arrived promptly (and fresh).

      Best of luck, Linda!

      – Joe

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